Many of us learned about historic sites such as Lake Titicaca and Machu Picchu in history and geography classes but have never visited them, or even the country in which they reside: Peru. Located in Western South America and bordering the South Pacific Ocean, this country is home to some of the most beautiful and awe-inspiring tourist sites and vacation hot spots in the world. It is most famous for Machu Picchu, which is located in the Andes Mountains, but is also home to the Temple of Coricancha, The Cathedral and Church of The Society of Jesus, and the Racchi Ruins of the Inca Empire.
Machu Picchu stands almost 8,000 feet above sea level in the tropical mountain range of the Andes. The urban structures were built on the mountains during the height of the Inca Empire and, with a breathtaking view, one can also explore Inca architecture and culture. The archaeological site is comprised of approximately 200 artifices and structures that were used for agriculture, religious ceremonies, and the study of astronomy. This site is located in the lush rain forest of the Amazon basin and overlooks the Urubamba Valley.
Other famous Peruvian archaeological complexes can be found at Qenko and Puca Pucara. Qenko is located in Peru’s Sacred Valley of Cusco and is believed to be a site of religious rituals and ceremonies that were held in honor of the sun, moon, and stars. The site was constructed from the use of natural rock formations and Inca building techniques. Around the complex are zigzagged corridors and winding underground tunnels that are believed to have been used by the ministers and priests of the holy sites.
Puca Pucara is more obscure because its history is primarily a matter of speculation. Historians believe the site was built during the reign of the Inca Empire’s ninth ruler and, given its location, was used as a military compound or resting facility for military personnel, nobility, and hunters. Furthermore, the stone walls are shaped irregularly, which have led some to believe that the site was built quickly in order to respond to a rapidly emerging threat. However, what is known is that the grounds were comprised of canals, plazas, individual rooms, and luxurious baths.
In addition to Peru’s archaeological sites, the country contains magnificent civilizations that are still around today. In Lake Titicaca, the people of the Uros Nation continue with their amazing cultures and lifestyles. These people are famous for living on floating reed islands and having a strong reliance on the lake’s totora reeds for not only the ground they walk on but also other aspects of their society. These reed islands were constructed to escape the aggression of the Colla and Inca people and the most authentic of these sites can only be accessed by private boat.
Last but not least is Lake Titicaca, which is as well-known as the Amazon River and was considered by the Incas to be the birthplace of the sun. This vast water body lays almost 13,000 feet above sea level and the civilizations of the Pukara, Collas, and Tiwanaku left an indelible mark with their rich histories and cultures. On the Peruvian side of the lake, a popular town to visit is Puno. This city has been designated as an economic zone by the Peruvian government and has been named Peru’s folklore capital because of its strong relationship with cultural and artistic expression, especially dance.